Know Your Disease

Leukorrhoea

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leucorrhoea  is a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge. There are many causes of leukorrhea, the usual one being oestrogen imbalance. The amount of discharge may increase due to vaginal infections or STD and also it may disappear and reappear from time to time, this discharge can keep occurring for years in which case it becomes more yellow and foul-smelling; it is usually a non-pathological symptom secondary to inflammatory conditions of vagina or cevix

Leukorrhea can be confirmed by finding >10 WBC under a microscope when examining vaginal fluid.

Vaginal discharge is not abnormal, and causes of change in discharge include infection, malignancy, and hormonal changes. It sometimes occurs before a girl has her first period, and is considered a sign of puberty.

Physiologic leukorrhea

It is not a major issue but is to be resolved as soon as possible. It can be a natural defense mechanism that the vagina uses to maintain its chemical balance, as well as to preserve the flexibility of the vaginal tissue. The term “physiologic leukorrhea” is used to refer to leukorrhea due to estrogen stimulation.[5]

Leukorrhea may occur normally during pregnancy. This is caused by increased bloodflow to the vagina due to increased estrogen. Female infants may have leukorrhea for a short time after birth due to their in-uterine exposure to estrogen.

Inflammatory leukorrhea

It may also result from inflammation or congestion of the vaginal mucosa. In cases where it is yellowish or gives off an odor, a doctor should be consulted since it could be a sign of several disease processes, including an organic bacterial infection (aerobic vaginitis) or STD

After delivery, leukorrhea accompanied by backache and foul-smelling lochia(post partum vaginal discharge, containing blood, mucus, and placental tissue) may suggest the failure of involution (the uterus returning to pre-pregnancy size) due to infection. A number of investigation such as wet smear, Gram Stain, culture, pap smear and biopsy are suggested to diagnose the condition.

Parasitic leukorrhea

Leukorrhea is also caused by trichomonads, a group of parasitic protozoan, specifically Trichomonas vaginalis. Common symptoms of this disease are burning sensation, itching and discharge of frothy substance, thick, white or yellow mucous.

Hair Fall

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Hair Fall

50 to 100 hair loss per day is normal but new hair grows at the same time. Hair loss occurs when this cycle of hair growth and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle is destroyed and replaced with scar tissue.

Common  Causes

  • Family history (heredity)
  • Stress
  • Hormonal changes like Thyroid Disorders
  • Medical conditions like Cancer, Skin disorders like Lichen planus, Lupus, Sarcoidosis etc
  • Medications –  used for cancer, arthritis, depression, heart problems, high blood pressure and birth control. Intake of too much vitamin A may also cause hair loss.
  • Certain Hair styling and Treatments
  • Unhygienic  measures in scalp care

Types:

Gradual thinning on top of head.

Circular or patchy bald spots(Alopecia Areata)

It occurs when the body’s immune system attacks hair follicles. usually affects just the scalp, but it sometimes also occurs in beards or eyebrows. In some cases, your skin may become itchy or painful before the hair falls out.

Sudden loosening of hair. A physical or emotional shock can cause hair to loosen. Handfuls of hair may come out.

Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as chemotherapy for cancer, can result in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back.

Patches of scaling that spread over the scalp. This is a sign of ringworm. It may be accompanied by broken hair, redness, swelling and, at times, oozing.

Hair-pulling disorder. This condition, also called trichotillomania.Affects people who has an irresistible urge to pull out their hair,

Diabetes

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Diabetes

If you have diabetes, it means you have too much glucose in your blood

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include
1. Prediabetes
when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. This can be treated with our diet chart alone.
2. Gestational diabetes
Which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. If persist after delivery then you require our treatment.
3. Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes occurs in people under the age of 20, but may occur at any age.
Here the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (called beta cells) are destroyed by the immune system. They produce no insulin and must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar. Here you have to be on insulin and we can give you symptomatic treatment.
4. Type 2 Diabetes
With Type 2 Diabetes, the body continues to produce insulin, although insulin production by the body may significantly decrease over time. The pancreas produces either not enough insulin, or the body is unable to recognize insulin and use it properly. When there isn’t enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose can’t get into the body’s cells to be used as energy.This glucose then builds up in the blood.. Your kidneys are forced to work overtime to filter and absorb the excess sugar. If your kidneys can’t keep up, the excess will start excreting into your urine along with fluids drawn from your tissues. This triggers more frequent urination, which may leave you dehydrated. As you drink more fluids to quench your thirst, you’ll urinate even more .
We can give cure depends on stage of disease.
Early symptoms of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, can be subtle or seemingly harmless — if you have symptoms at all. Over time, however, you may develop diabetes complications, even if you haven’t had diabetes symptoms.
Symptoms
•Excessive thirst and increased urination
•Fatigue
•Weight loss
•For women, bladder and vaginal infections are especially common.
In Advanced Stage
•Blurred vision

High levels of blood sugar pull fluid from your tissues, including the lenses of your eyes. This affects your ability to focus.
Left untreated, diabetes can cause new blood vessels to form in your retina — the back part of your eye — and damage established vessels. For most people, these early changes do not cause vision problems. However, if these changes progress undetected, they can lead to vision loss and blindness.
•Slow-healing sores or frequent infections
•Tingling hands and feet
Excess sugar in your blood can lead to nerve damage. You may notice tingling and loss of sensation in your hands and feet, as well as burning pain in your arms, hands, legs and feet.
•Red, swollen, tender gums
Diabetes may weaken your ability to fight germs, which increases the risk of infection in your gums and in the bones that hold your teeth in place. your teeth may become loose, or you may develop sores or pockets of pus in your gums — especially if you have a gum infection before diabetes develops.
Take your body’s hints seriously
If you notice any possible diabetes signs or symptoms, contact your doctor. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the sooner treatment can begin. Diabetes is a serious condition. But with your active participation and the support of our health care team, you can manage diabetes while enjoying an active, healthy life.

Adenoids

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The adenoids are a mass of soft tissue behind the nasal cavity. Like lymph nodes, adenoids are part of the immune system and are made of the same type of tissue (lymphoid tissue). White blood cells circulate through the adenoids and other lymphoid tissue, reacting to foreign invaders in the body.

We all have adenoids at birth and in childhood, but as we head into adolescence they start to shrink. By adulthood, most people’s adenoids have disappeared.

Adenoids Conditions

  • Adnoiditis : Inflammation of the adenoids, often from infection. Bacteria or viruses may cause adenoiditis.
  • Enlarged adenoids: In children, the adenoids can get larger because of infection or reasons that are unclear. Very large adenoids can interfere with breathing or with the flow of mucus.
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnoea : While sleeping, enlarged adenoids may intermittently block the flow of air through the throat. This can cause a person to stop breathing for a few seconds (known as apnea) and can occur several times each night.
  • Ear Infections (otitis): In children, enlarged adenoids may block the Eustachian tubes, which drain fluid from the ears into the throat. If these tubes are unable to drain, it can lead to repeated ear infections.

Adenoids Tests

  • Endoscopy: A small, flexible tube with a lighted camera on the end is inserted into the nose or throat. A doctor can view the nasal passages and adenoids on a video screen during endoscopy.
  • A CT scanner takes multiple X-rays, and a computer constructs detailed images of the sinuses, nasal cavities, and adenoids.
  •  An MRI scanner uses a high-powered magnet and a computer to create highly detailed images of the nasal passages, sinuses, and adenoids.
  •  An X-ray film taken from the side of a person’s face (lateral view) can sometimes show enlarged adenoids.

Pneumonia

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Pneumonia  is a lung infection that can make you very sick. You may cough, run a fever, and have a hard time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. It often clears up in 2 to 3 weeks. But older adults, babies, and people with other diseases can become very ill. They may need to be in the hospital.

You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work. This is called community-associated pneumonia. You can also get it when you are in a hospital or nursing home. This is called healthcare-associated pneumonia. It may be more severe because you already are ill. This topic focuses on pneumonia you get in your daily life.

Germs called bacteria or viruses usually cause pneumonia.

Pneumonia usually starts when you breathe the germs into your lungs. You may be more likely to get the disease after having a cold or the flu. These illnesses make it hard for your lungs to fight infection, so it is easier to get pneumonia. Having a long-term, or chronic, disease likeasthma, heart disease, cancer, or diabts also makes you more likely to get pneumonia.

symptoms caused by bacteria usually come on quickly. They may include:

  • cough. You will likely cough up mucus (sputum) from your lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.
  • Fever.
  • Fast breathing and feeling short of breath.
  • Shaking and “teeth-chattering” chills.
  • chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in.
  • Fast heartbeat.
  • Feeling very tired or very weak.
  • Nausea and Vomitting.
  • Diarrhoa.

When you have mild symptoms, your doctor may call this “walking pneumonia.”

Older adults may have different, fewer, or milder symptoms. They may not have a fever. Or they may have a cough but not bring up mucus. The main sign of pneumonia in older adults may be a change in how well they think. Confusion or delireum is common. Or, if they already have alung disease, that disease may get worse.

Symptoms caused by viruses are the same as those caused by bacteria. But they may come on slowly and often are not as obvious or as bad.

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