Common Diseases

Hypothyroidism

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  1. Hypothyroidism

(underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain important hormones.
Which inturn upsets the normal balance of chemical reactions in your body
Causes
• Autoimmune disease – People who develop a particular inflammatory disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis suffer from the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues.
• Treatment for hyperthyroidism – People who produce too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) are often treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications to reduce and normalize their thyroid function.
• Thyroid surgery -Removing all or a large portion of your thyroid gland can diminish or halt hormone production.
• Radiation therapy – Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect your thyroid gland and may lead to hypothyroidism.
• Medications – A number of medications can contribute to hypothyroidism. One such medication is lithium, which is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders.
• Emotional stress.
Less often, hypothyroidism may result from one of the following:
• Congenital disease.
• Pituitary disorder.
• Pregnancy.
• Iodine deficiency.
signs and symptom
• Fatigue
• Weight gain
• Increased sensitivity to cold
• Constipation
• Dry skin
• Unexplained weight gain
• Puffy face
• Hoarseness
• Muscle weakness
• Elevated blood cholesterol level
• Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
• Pain, stiffness or swelling in your joints
• Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
• Thinning hair
• Slowed heart rate
• Depression
• Impaired memory.
Advanced hypothyroidism, known as myxedema, is rare, but when it occurs it can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms include low blood pressure, decreased breathing, decreased body temperature, unresponsiveness and even coma. In extreme cases, myxedema can be fatal.
Hypothyroidism in infants
Initially, babies born without a thyroid gland or with a gland that doesn’t work properly may have few signs and symptoms. When newborns do have problems with hypothyroidism, they may include:
• Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). In most cases, this occurs when a baby’s liver can’t metabolize a substance called bilirubin, which normally forms when the body recycles old or damaged red blood cells.
• Frequent choking.
• A large, protruding tongue.
• A puffy appearance to the face.
As the disease progresses, infants are likely to have trouble feeding and may fail to grow and develop normally. They may also have:
• Constipation
• Poor muscle tone
• Excessive sleepiness
When hypothyroidism in infants isn’t treated, even mild cases can lead to severe physical and mental retardation.
Hypothyroidism in children and teens
In general, children and teens who develop hypothyroidism have the same signs and symptoms as adults do, but they may also experience:
• Poor growth, resulting in short stature
• Delayed development of permanent teeth
• Delayed puberty
• Poor mental development
you’re at an increased risk if you:
• Are a woman older than age 60
• Have an autoimmune disease
• Have a close relative, such as a parent or grandparent, with an autoimmune disease
• Have been treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications
• Received radiation to your neck or upper chest
• Have had thyroid surgery (partial thyroidectomy)
• Have been pregnant or delivered a baby within the past six months

Goitre

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Thyroid Diseases

Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland situated at the base of the front of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland — triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) — have an enormous impact on your health, affecting all aspects of your metabolism. They maintain the rate at which your body uses fats and carbohydrates, help control your body temperature, influence your heart rate, and help regulate the production of proteins.Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, a hormone that helps regulate the amount of calcium in your blood.

The rate at which T-4 and T-3 are released is controlled by your pituitary gland and your hypothalamus — an area at the base of your brain that acts as a thermostat for your whole system. Here’s how the process works:

The hypothalamus signals your pituitary gland to make a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Your pituitary gland then releases TSH — the amount depends on how much T-4 and T-3 are in your blood. If you don’t have enough T-4 and T-3 in your blood, your TSH will rise; if you have too much, your TSH level will fall. Finally, your thyroid gland regulates its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. If the thyroid gland is diseased and is releasing too much thyroid hormone on its own, the TSH blood level will remain below normal; if the diseased thyroid gland cannot make enough thyroid hormone, the TSH blood level will remain high.

  1. Goiter

Goiter is a noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland. The most common cause of goiter worldwide is iodine deficiency in the diet. Goiter is often caused by (and a symptom of) hyperthyroidism where iodized salt provides plenty of iodine. Goiter can affect anyone at any age, especially in areas of the world where foods rich in iodine are in short supply. However, goiters are more common after the age of 40 and in women, who are more likely to have thyroid disorders. Other risk factors include family medical history, certain medication usage, pregnancy, and radiation exposure.When hypothyroidism isn’t treated, signs and symptoms can gradually become more severe. Constant stimulation of your thyroid gland to release more hormones may lead to an enlarged thyroid (goiter)

There might not be any symptoms if the goiter is not severe. The goiter may cause one or more of the following symptoms if it grows large enough, depending on the size:

  • swelling/tightness in the neck
  • breathing and/or swallowing difficulties
  • coughing or wheezing

Shoulder Pain

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Shoulder Pain

Common is Rotator cuff (group of 4 muscles that stabilise the shoulder) injuries- range from mild to severe.

3 Types

  1. Tendinitis is an injury caused by overuse of the rotator cuff. This causes it to become inflamed. Tennis players who serve overhead and painters who reach upward to paint may commonly experience this injury.This is why the condition may also be referred to as swimmer’s shoulder, pitcher’s shoulder, or tennis shoulder.
  2. Bursitis is another common rotator cuff injury. It is caused by inflammation of the bursa, which are fluid-filled sacs in the rotator cuff that aid in motion. This typically occurs after an injury or degenerative damage to the rotator cuff.
  3. Rotator cuff strains or tears are caused by overuse or acute injury. The tendons that connect muscles to bones can overstretch (strain) or tear, partially or completely. The same can be true for rotator cuff muscles. For example, a baseball pitcher who frequently uses the rotator cuff to throw would experience this type of injury. Untreated tendinitis commonly causes these injuries

The rotator cuff can also strain or tear after a fall, a car accident, or another sudden injury. These injuries typically cause intense and immediate pain.

Risk Group

  1. Acute injuries are the result of previous injuries. These can be caused by lifting objects that are too heavy, falling, or breaking the collarbone. Young people are more likely to experience this type of rotator cuff injury
  2. Degenerative injuries are due to long-term overuse. People most at risk for these injuries include:
  • athletes, particularly tennis players, baseball players, rowers, and wrestlers
  • people with jobs that require repetitive lifting, such as painters and carpenters
  • people above 40 years of age.

Symptoms

Not all rotator cuff injuries cause pain. Because some are the result of degenerative conditions, the rotator cuff could be damaged for months or years before symptoms start to appear.

Common rotator cuff injury symptoms include:

  • avoiding certain activities because they cause pain
  • difficulty achieving full range of shoulder motion
  • difficulty sleeping on the affected shoulder
  • pain or tenderness when reaching overhead
  • pain in the shoulder, especially at night
  • progressive weakness of the shoulder
  • trouble reaching behind the back
  • Pain is different for each person.
  • A shoulder injury that lasts longer than six months indicates a very large tear or significant loss of function and strength in the arm.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

It’s a chronic inflammatory disorder that typically affects the small joints in your hands and feet. Unlike the wear-and-tear damage of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity.

An autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks your own body’s tissues. In addition to causing joint problems, rheumatoid arthritis sometimes can affect other organs of the body — such as the skin, eyes, lungs and blood vessels.

Can occur at any age, but usually begins after age 40 & Common in women.

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:

  • Tender, warm, swollen joints ( smaller joints first)
  • Morning stiffness that may last for hours
  • Firm bumps of tissue under the skin on your arms (rheumatoid nodules)
  • Fatigue, fever and weight loss

Over time, rheumatoid arthritis can cause joints to deform and shift out of place.

Rheumatic Fever

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Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat or scarlet fever. Strep throat and scarlet fever are caused by an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria.

Rheumatic fever is most common in 5- to 15-year-old children, though it can develop in younger children and adults.

Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to the heart, including damaged heart valves and heart failure. Treatments can reduce tissue damage from inflammation, lessen pain and other symptoms, and prevent the recurrence of rheumatic fever.

The symptoms may also change during the course of the disease. Rheumatic fever signs and symptoms — which result from inflammation in the heart, joints, skin or central nervous system — may include:

  • Fever
  • Painful and tender joints — most often the ankles, knees, elbows or wrists; less often the shoulders, hips, hands and feet
  • Pain in one joint that migrates to another joint
  • Red, hot or swollen joints
  • Small, painless nodules beneath the skin
  • Chest pain
  • Heart murmur
  • Fatigue
  • Flat or slightly raised, painless rash with a ragged edge (erythema marginatum)
  • Jerky, uncontrollable body movements (Sydenham chorea or St. Vitus’ dance) — most often in the hands, feet and face
  • Outbursts of unusual behavior, such as crying or inappropriate laughing, that accompanies Sydenham chorea

Call your doctor about a fever in the following situations:

  • Newborns up to 3 months old with a fever of 100.4 F (38 C) taken rectally
  • Children ages 3 to 6 months with a temperature of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher
  • Children ages 6 months to 2 years with a fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher that doesn’t respond to medication or lasts more than one day
  • Children ages 2 to 17 years with a fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher (taken rectally for children younger than 3 and orally for children older than 3) that doesn’t respond to medication or lasts more than three days

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