1. Hypothyroidism

(underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain important hormones.
Which inturn upsets the normal balance of chemical reactions in your body
Causes
• Autoimmune disease – People who develop a particular inflammatory disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis suffer from the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues.
• Treatment for hyperthyroidism – People who produce too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) are often treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications to reduce and normalize their thyroid function.
• Thyroid surgery -Removing all or a large portion of your thyroid gland can diminish or halt hormone production.
• Radiation therapy – Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect your thyroid gland and may lead to hypothyroidism.
• Medications – A number of medications can contribute to hypothyroidism. One such medication is lithium, which is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders.
• Emotional stress.
Less often, hypothyroidism may result from one of the following:
• Congenital disease.
• Pituitary disorder.
• Pregnancy.
• Iodine deficiency.
signs and symptom
• Fatigue
• Weight gain
• Increased sensitivity to cold
• Constipation
• Dry skin
• Unexplained weight gain
• Puffy face
• Hoarseness
• Muscle weakness
• Elevated blood cholesterol level
• Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
• Pain, stiffness or swelling in your joints
• Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
• Thinning hair
• Slowed heart rate
• Depression
• Impaired memory.
Advanced hypothyroidism, known as myxedema, is rare, but when it occurs it can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms include low blood pressure, decreased breathing, decreased body temperature, unresponsiveness and even coma. In extreme cases, myxedema can be fatal.
Hypothyroidism in infants
Initially, babies born without a thyroid gland or with a gland that doesn’t work properly may have few signs and symptoms. When newborns do have problems with hypothyroidism, they may include:
• Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). In most cases, this occurs when a baby’s liver can’t metabolize a substance called bilirubin, which normally forms when the body recycles old or damaged red blood cells.
• Frequent choking.
• A large, protruding tongue.
• A puffy appearance to the face.
As the disease progresses, infants are likely to have trouble feeding and may fail to grow and develop normally. They may also have:
• Constipation
• Poor muscle tone
• Excessive sleepiness
When hypothyroidism in infants isn’t treated, even mild cases can lead to severe physical and mental retardation.
Hypothyroidism in children and teens
In general, children and teens who develop hypothyroidism have the same signs and symptoms as adults do, but they may also experience:
• Poor growth, resulting in short stature
• Delayed development of permanent teeth
• Delayed puberty
• Poor mental development
you’re at an increased risk if you:
• Are a woman older than age 60
• Have an autoimmune disease
• Have a close relative, such as a parent or grandparent, with an autoimmune disease
• Have been treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications
• Received radiation to your neck or upper chest
• Have had thyroid surgery (partial thyroidectomy)
• Have been pregnant or delivered a baby within the past six months

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